This is, more or less, the ability to perceive emotion in someone else's speech, in tones of voice, etc... I am learning a lot from writing this article. Most articles on this have to do with brain injuries which impede the processing of emotional prosody. So everything would sound like Siri to you. You wouldn't get anger, sarcasm, reserve, and a thousand other shades of vocal emotion. I suppose that neuro-typical people have a different way of processing emotional prosody than those who aren't.
I invented a term today called "pragmatic prosody." (Well, I didn't really invent it, I guess, because a search reveals that the term is already in use.) My idea is to link emotional, pragmatic, and other dimensions of prosody to poetic prosody itself, rather than some dumb syllable-counting exercise. "La conciencia prosódica en Olvido García Valdés." It's fun to come up with new ideas.
I remember a talk by someone in Spanish, about poetry, by a distinguished professor at a 3rd rate place, who read poetry out loud in Spanish without realizing that a diphthong should not be pronounced as two separate syllables. So this professor would fail Spanish prosody 101.
Yet these phenomena are most noticeable in their failure.